Project Details


INCLUSION addressed a number of challenges related to the accessibility of public transport in remote urban/rural areas and neighbourhoods. The project investigated the current conditions across a representative set of European prioritised areas, understanding the relevant needs of various vulnerable user and social groups and assessing how novel transport solutions involving social innovation and ICT tools can help raise the level of accessibility, inclusiveness and equity of mobility.


Project details

Duration 10/2017 - 09/2020


Coordinator Softeco Sismat SRL (Italy)

Project goal

INCLUSION worked towards achieving the following 10 objectives:

  • To investigate and understand the main characteristics of prioritised areas as well as the relevant factors that influence mobility and accessibility

  • To identify the user and social groups most exposed to transport accessibility issues and inequality in the different type of areas and undertake a comprehensive analysis of their mobility requirements

  • To understand how ICT tools, service and social innovation can help individuals to cope with accessibility issues and improve or increase inclusivity and transport equity for the concerned user groups.

  • To identify and critically assess existing innovative, efficient, affordable, inclusive, equitable and economically viable forms of public transport, with a particular focus on the use of ICT applications and on

  • transferability potentials for both the prioritised areas and social groups

  • To undertake experimental validation of innovative elements and ideas aimed to enhance transport accessibility in selected prioritised areas and transport environments for the concerned vulnerable users

  • To undertake a quantitative assessment of the impacts and a qualitative process evaluation in selected innovative transport solutions validated in the INCLUSION experimental sites

  • To investigate, develop and consolidate business concepts and models related to the assessed accessible transport options with the aim of transferring these findings to other European contexts

  • To disseminate and promote the identified innovations, transferable solutions and recommendations with the aim of fostering the adoption of accessible, inclusive and equitable mobility solutions for

  • European prioritised areas and vulnerable user groups


INCLUSION produced a set of innovative solutions which were tested in the so-called Innovation Pilot Labs, a mix of urban, peri-/sub-urban and rural target areas in Europe:

  • Rhein-Sieg region - Germany
  • Flanders region - Belgium
  • Budapest urban area – Hungary
  • Florence metropolitan area – Italy
  • Barcelona peri-urban area and neighbouring conurbation – Spain
  • Cairngorms Natural Park rural area – UK, Scotland

Among others, results are:

  • understanding the main transport challenges in different types of prioritised areas.

  • providing an in-depth examination of ten innovative public transport approaches and a wider catalogue of at least forty case studies of accessible, inclusive and equitable transport solutions.

  • delivering a set of recommendations and mobility solutions for vulnerable users’ communities.

Role of Rupprecht Consult

Our team led the work package involving field and desk research to study and critically assess inclusive mobility options and good practice in 50 case studies across Europe (WP3), as well as leading a task on qualitative process evaluation (WP5) and acting as support partner for VRS (Pilot Lab) in their user needs analysis (WP4).

Contact details

Ralf Brand
+49 221 6060 55 18

Project partners

Related resources


INCLUSION D1.1 Definition of terms [PDF]

INCLUSION D1.2 Review and classification of prioritized area types and user groups and identification of challenges and gaps [PDF]

INCLUSION D1.3 Identification and assessment of mobility needs of "vulnerable to exclusion" users and population groups [PDF]

INCLUSION D2.1 First report on new ideas and concepts for PT innovations in prioritized areas [PDF]

INCLUSION D3.1 Database of case study nominees [PDF]

INCLUSION D3.2 Case Study Metodology [PDF]

INCLUSION D3.3 Compilation of 50 case study profiles; overviews and in-depth investigations [PDF]

INCLUSION D5.1 Impact Evaluation Plan [PDF]

INCLUSION D5.2 Process Evaluation Plan [PDF]

INCLUSION D7.2 Project dissemination and communication package [PDF]

INCLUSION Newsletter #4 [PDF]

INCLUSION D3.4 - How to make inclusive mobility a reality: 8 principles and tools for a fair(er) transport system [PDF]

INCLUSION D5.6 Evaluation of pilot labs [PDF]

INCLUSION D2.2_Final-report-PT-innovations-in prioritised-areas [PDF]

INCLUSION_D5.3_Process Evaluation Results FINAL [PDF]

INCLUSION_D5.4_Full-evaluation-reference-scenarios [PDF]

INCLUSION_D5.5_Full-evaluation-test-results [PDF]

INCLUSION_D6.1_Business concepts and models [PDF]

INCLUSION_D6.2_Recommendations-transferability-of-business-models [PDF]

INCLUSION_D7.2_Project-dissemination-and-communication-pkg [PDF]

INCLUSION_D7.4_Final-dissemination-report [PDF]

INCLUSION_D7.5_Exploitation-and-innovation-mgmt [PDF]


INCLUSION_D4.2_PL-Action-Plan-FINAL-Florence [PDF]

INCLUSION_D4.5_PL-Action-Plan-FINAL-Flanders [PDF]

INCLUSION_D4.6_PL-Action-Plan-FINAL-Barcelona [PDF]

INCLUSION_D4.7_PL-Action-Plan-FINAL-Budapest [PDF]

INC_D4.4_PL-Action-Plan-FINAL-Cairngorm [PDF]